Ranged weapons have distance increments indicated in their stats.
When a target is:
Within the first increment there is no penalty to shoot.
Between first and second increment take -2 dice to shoot.
Between second and third increment take -4 dice to shoot.
The third increment is usually the maximal effective range for combat shooting. Penalty’s for shots beyond that increment are at story teller’s discretion but should be at least -6 probably much more (esp if any wind or visibility issues).